islam and human psychology

A uniquely Islamic theoretical framework for an Islamic psychology has yet to be established. (2012). The theoretical implication for this study is to understand the psychology of giving. The article discusses the connection of human psychology with Islam. Kaplick, P. M., & Skinner, R. (2017). modern Western psychology. Islam und Psychologie - Eine Aufklärungsseite und Hilfe in Not. Haque, A., Khan, F., Keshavarzi, H., & Rothman, A. E. (2016). This is demonstrated in the description of processes along the path that act as mechanisms for exerting effort in the dynamic interplay within the soul as it struggles between the two opposing forces, namely jihad an nafs, tahdhib al akhlaq, and tazkiyat an nafs. An analytical approach is adopted to search the sources which contain information related to human nature in order to justify that religion has a strong voice to help humans to cognize the role of Islamic Psychology in … OCD in the Muslim World (Webinar) Dec 12th 3. Skinner, R. (2010). It is the soul.” In discussing the structure of the soul, most participants referenced the four main aspects (nafs, qalb, aql, and ruh) presented in al-Ghazali’s twelfth century work the ihya ilumidin (The Revival of the Religious Sciences, 2015) which are used to describe different functions or qualities of the one integral soul. Keshavarzi and Haque (2013) outline how these four aspects can provide a framework for interventions, with each representing a “level” of the soul as a relative target point for intervening according to assessment and diagnosis. Abu-Raiya, H. (2012). In the same way, Avicenna's Islamic psychology propose… Islamic Psychology or ilm an-nafs (Science of the Soul) is an important introductory textbook drawing on the latest evidence in the sub-disciplines of psychology to provide a balanced and comprehensive view of human nature, behaviour and experience. Building upon this model, the three aspects identified here that collectively form a mechanism for the development of the soul (tazkiyat an nafs, tahdhib al akhlaq, and jihad an nafs) have particular relevance to application in psychotherapy and implications for further research in the development of indigenous approaches. In describing al-Ghazali’s system Abdelsalam said, “The munjiyat are the things that help you to get to your goal but the muhlikat are the things that keep you away from your goal.” Often the cure for a certain vice is its opposite in the form of a virtue, as Abdelsalam went on to say, “because to rule with justice you need to get rid of zulm [injustice], which is the opposite to justice.” Enas (an Islamic psychologist) pointed out that not only did al-Ghazali give an exhaustive list of illnesses, or muhlikat, and their treatments, or munjiyat, but he also outlined a program for how to go about treating each one, found particularly in book three of his ihya ilumidin. Nafsi Ammar is the source of harmful inclinations according to the Holy Qur‟an. However, the best way to describe the kind of Islamic psychology that gives our institution a reason to exist is that it is simply psychology but underpinned by an Islamic epistemological, ontological, and metaphysical worldview. Islam takes for granted that one day all of the peoples of the world will see the wisdom of God’s message and will embrace Islam in peace, creating a single community of the faithful, an ummah. The article also gives an idea how good deeds and attributes make an individual personality good or bad. It is inappropriate to adopt the theoretical orientations that underpin contemporary Western psychology because most of these have been influenced by concepts of human nature other than those derived from Islam (Delaney and DiClemente 2005). So many ayat and ahadeeth talk about the “nafs” and the “heart” and really directly address the psychological components of our human experiences. Psychology’s roots: A brief history of the influence of Judeo-Christian perspectives. The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. When we discuss psychology, it comes the concept of spirit, self, heart and wisdom. Thus, the main focus for most of the participants in asking them to conceive of an Islamic paradigm of the person in relation to psychology was that it primarily entails struggling against the powerful influence of the nafs in the process of trying to come back into alignment with fitrah. As a religion, Islam does not recognize the racial discrimination among people. London: MWH London. In referring to what is meant by the biblical as well as Qur’anic saying that humans were created in God’s form, Abdelsalam explained that “He has made us such that we can rule over ourselves and over … you know … with the same justice and wisdom.” Thus, by demonstrating these qualities sincerely and authentically, the notion is that we elevate our status and move upward on the trajectory toward nafs al mutmainah, this being the focus of human existence in the dunya and therefore the focus of an Islamic perspective of the psychology of the person. As Yahya pointed out, in reference to the scholars who wrote those Qur’anic commentaries, “It’s the mujahada, the struggle over the nafs, it’s back to psychology. Human psychology and Islam Introduction to Islamic Psychology In Islamic psychology, the spiritual component of an individual is crucial to the nature of a human being and is distinct from an individual‟s psychological and biological components. The idea here is that, as theory is developed from the data, the question of where and with whom to sample next is answered by considering what aspects of the emergent theory or model might benefit from further clarification and elaboration. The model posits that the soul has an inherent inclination toward growth and an upward trajectory in relation to this model, due to its primordial nature of knowing God, and that the Islamic tradition, as guided by the Qur’an and Sunnah, encourages and maps out a path for the human being to pursue this trajectory. His Qur’anic theory of personality follows some of the a priori assumptions of Freudian theory and “holds a largely negative view of human nature” (p. 231), which more closely resembles a Christian paradigm of human nature (Niebuhr 2004). This raises pertinent issues such as the goals of Satan, whispers, magic, possession and its signs, methods used by him as well as means of protection from him. He then pointed out that while the terms ilm an nafs (knowledge of the soul) or fiqh an nafs (deep knowledge of the soul)—as Yahya said al-Ghazali used—are more about the study of the structure of the soul, tazkiyat an nafs (purification of the soul) was traditionally viewed as a practical way of living and is more about putting that knowledge into application, or the process of shining the mirror. Islam recognizes no distinction among human beings based on color, language or tribe. Still it was conceived as having great importance as it posits the trajectory toward development that all participants seemed to feel was an integral aspect of the Islamic conception of the soul. London: SAGE. Quranic Psychology Author: Mustafa Mahmood To be moral, in a philosophical sense, is to be able to find a means of satisfying your desires without infringing the rights of others to satisfy theirs. In explaining this process of conforming to the guidance from the Islamic tradition, Hamit said, “That’s not an easy process to begin and at the beginning that’s not gonna feel very natural, and it’s normal to allow for that discomfort… towards the discipline of formulating the nafs.”. PSYCHOLOGY and ISLAM Understand the relationship between them, and understand the psychology based on the view of Islam. When we discuss psychology, it comes the concept of spirit, self, heart and wisdom. This cognitive aspect of the qalb, participants indicated, is often referred to as the aql and was explained as the part of the qalb that “intellects,” with emphasis on the verb form of the Arabic word as used in the Qur’an. From Islamic perspective, whenever possible, explanation from Quran, Sunnah, Fiqh, Aqidah and Akhlaq perspectives were presented. Integrating Islamic traditions in modern psychology: Research trends in last ten years. The munjiyat were described by participants as the Godly qualities that are a part of our birthright within our fitrah, and connected to the ruh aspect of the soul. It can turn toward the lower impulses of the nafs and become further misaligned with fitrah by the influences of the dunya and shaytan, resulting in increased negative characteristics of the muhlikat and a state of ghafla. When a favorable ethical opinion for the study had been obtained from the researchers’ university context, the field work began with piloting to test the schedule. These are Id, Ego and Superego. Islam as you may well already know, and if not, then soon you will witness, has the natural constructs of positive psychology embedded in the teachings of the Qur’an. We embrace and build upon the work of classical scholars from the Islamic tradition and bring it … He said: “So it is not just the study of psychology but the process of cleansing, the process of cleaning, making the mirror shine. Islamic psychology also helps reduce the information gap that separates the West and Islam. As Cesar put it, “With the uncontrollable, insatiable, you know, desires the human beings have can lead to tremendous moral problems.” Participants specified that these inclinations are not seen as psychological deficiencies in the person but as normal characteristics of the uncontrolled nafs. Islam and Psychology Spiritual Beings on a Human Journey. This process is represented by the red elements toward the bottom half of the model in Fig. Herndon, VA: International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT). 2016; Kaplick and Skinner 2017), these few papers have been useful in laying some groundwork and suggesting potential directions for further expansion of a theoretical framework for the domain. In reflecting on the self, as John said, “It’s thought that one would find out where one’s weaknesses lie. Recitations vs Reading. (2013). The Muslim World, 91(3–4), 425–450. Nearly 23% considered themselves absolute Laker fans, whereas 28% were not fans of the Lakers at all. The research question that underpinned the study was: what are the core principles and concepts regarding the conceptualization of the person from within an Islamic paradigm? Based on the literatures; the human behavior, culture, faith and educational background motivate people to give. PSYCHOLOGY and ISLAM Understand the relationship between them, and understand the psychology based on the view of Islam. Not all participants were recruited at the same time. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants in the study. - 166.62.121.164. This is explained below. An Islamic approach to psychology and mental health. However important, the “mind” orintellect, with its practical and theoretical aspects, is only part ofthe falâsifa's “science of thesoul.” Their main sources are found in three Aristoteliantreatises: On the Soul (De anima), On Sense and Sensibilia(De Sensu et Sensibili), and On Memory and Recollection(De Memoria et Remini… 1) Non-Islamic view a) Not all thoughts,behaviour, feeling are inclusion in theory of human nature. Islam itself is deeply interested in human psychology. Islam and Psychology Spiritual Beings on a Human Journey. Allah has blessed us with guidance in all facets of our lives, including that of our own souls and psyches. Participants described the muhlikat as natural tendencies within the nafs of the human being which pull a person toward the lower part of the self and a downward trajectory in the realm of dunya and the forces of shaytan. When we discuss psychology, it comes the concept of spirit, self, heart and wisdom. The qalb, which is the spiritual center of the person, and where the faculty of intellect is located as the aql, has the potential to turn in either of two directions which shapes the relative, transient outcome of this conflict. The paper had referred to both psychology and Islamic psychology’s secondary sources. Yaqoub (a non-academic Islamic religious scholar) explained “the fitrah is an allusion to the original imprint of this tawhid [divine unity].” Participants reported that after conception a process of corruption begins, as the person makes their way through the trials of the dunya (temporal world) which begins to distance them from and cover over their pure nature. Payne, S. (2016). They noted that when we adopt these character traits as treatments for the illnesses of our nafs, we get closer to embodying that innate Godly nature within and, as Abdelsalam pointed out, this is where we can access our higher purpose as human beings as khalifahtullah (vice-regent of God). Abdallah Rothman. Islam is also called deen al-”fitrah”, the religion of human nature, because its laws and its teachings are in full harmony with the normal and the natural inclination of the human “fitrah” to believe in and submit to the Creator as stated in Qur’an: The definition of Islamic religious psychology can range from “the study of human nafs (soul) from an Islamic perspective” to a more complex description, like the “study of manifestations of God in nature as reflected in the behavioral patterns of all living and nonliving organisms in all walks of their lives using the Islamic paradigm” (Vahab 1999). Islam values the importance of good mental health and emotional wellbeing. To do so requires that we understand at a foundational level how human beings are conceptualized within the cosmology that characterizes the Islamic tradition. Islamic Psychology Helping others is very much encouraged in Islam and the work of therapist or counsellor is very beneficial to the whole society. Key informant interviews. Badri, M. B. Participants were sought who had academic or religious expertise related to Islamic conceptions of human psychology and who could therefore act as “key informants,” sharing their own views and commenting from their informed positions on the views of others in their field (Gilchrist 1992). Delaney, H. D., & DiClemente, C. C. (2005). Almost all of the participants who spoke in detail about the process of tahdhib al akhlaq identified al-Ghazali’s contribution as being most significant in that he developed a systematic framework for the treatments of these illnesses of the soul in his discussions on the muhlikat (vices) and munjiyat (virtues). Id is equal to Nafsi Ammar. However, it didn't quite felt like "Psychology from the Islamic Perspective" despite the name, which had intrigued me … 1, from the nafs downward. It views their input and the resulting analysis as part of a collaborative process of constructing and developing theoretical insights. Participants seemed to agree that the primary reason for most psychological problems is a misalignment with the fitrah. The Qur’an can be used as a guide to those suffering from emotional distress and … PubMed  Most were authors of books or articles relevant to the research question but others were identified through personal recommendations and “snowballing”. Instead recruitment occurred progressively in a process referred to as “theoretical sampling” which characterized the research approach adopted in this study. Physical & Social Hijab for both genders Ahlulbayt Live. Many participants related that having knowledge of God is a fundamental feature of the nature of the human soul from an Islamic perspective. In other words Islam is an ideology (not just a religion) that is capable of answering every problematic question of mankind. In Islam, human beings are said to possess a dual nature, as they are … We embrace and build upon the work of classical scholars from the Islamic tradition and … In this study, saturation was reached just before the eighteenth participant’s transcript was analyzed, as data collected from interviews at this point were only producing recurring codes and categories. Ihya’’ulum al-din: The revival of the religious sciences. Iqbal, T. (2001). Ibn Sina (981 - 1037 CE) was the major influence upon the history of Islamic psychology, taking the ideas of the Greek philosophers and adapting them to fit Islamic doctrine. Al-Ghazali, A. H. (2015). ISLAM AND PSYCHOLOGY: The Human Psyche – A Quranic Perspective Essay by koolblue , University, Bachelor's , B+ , February 2009 download word file , 17 pages download word file , 17 pages 4.0 2 votes In this context, the term nafs is used to refer to the lower self, similar to the ego, in that it is the part of the soul that inclines toward the dunya through desires, distracting a person from Allah and opening them to the influence of shaytan (the devil). He stated that "an isolated individual could not achieve all the perfections by himself, without the aid of other individuals." Ramadan Diet Advice. In addressing the need to develop a comprehensive theory within an Islamic epistemological paradigm, Elmessiri (2006) asserted that the project must be a collaborative effort by a team of scholars who organize relevant thought and knowledge in a “creative attempt to apprehend the paradigms implicit in different Islamic texts and phenomena” (p. 68). Islamic Psychology (Ilm Ul Nafs) is the study of the “self” (nafs) or the “psyche” from an Islamic Perspective with concepts that are not included in western forms of studying the field i.e the unseen influences, the impact of destiny, the sway of the shaytaan and the inclusion of the soul. Islam discusses these aspects of human personality and their role in life in Holy Quran. Psychology from Islamic perspective: Contributions of early Muslim scholars and challenges to contemporary Muslim psychologists. In addition to a more positive view of human nature in the sense of the soul being innately pure, the Islamic model of the soul presented in this study possesses several features that distinguish it from most secular Western models of human nature. Islam itself is deeply interested in human psychology. Yahya specified that this changing nature of the nafs is why we need to be diligent in keeping the qalb, aql and nafs aligned and on the right path by exerting effort in the struggle of the soul. Psychology plays a vital role in human personality. Recitations vs Reading . Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 15(3), 217–233. It’s not focused on just getting people back into the capitalist system for instance, and just defining human functioning as being productive in a material sense,” pointing out that a Western approach to psychology would seldom include the state of the soul in a treatment plan. I’ve always felt that psychology and Islam complement each other so well. That’s his main focus, I think that’s important.”. A uniquely Islamic theoretical framework for an Islamic psychology has yet to be established. between Islam tradition and Western psychology. Haque, A. The notion that the spiritual center of the human being is the heart is a significant distinction, together with the contention that the intellect and consciousness are located in this heart center rather than in the mind, as most psychological theories posit. Because when we struggle… because the nafs is this… is sort of influenced by certain contingent happenings from the environment, from our instincts or from environmental influences that cause us to deviate from fitrah.”. While there is a dearth of literature and research on the psyche, the self or the soul within the realm of Islam and psychology (Haque et al. This process is represented by the blue elements toward the top half of the model in Fig. The inclusion of these stages is significant in that they impart a dynamic element to the framework and indicate a natural progression of the soul toward growth. These findings reflect and support those reported by Abu-Raiya (2012) and Keshavarzi and Haque (2013), particularly in the centrality of the elements of the soul (nafs, qalb, aql, ruh). Sufism is at its very core the study and practice of the Psychology of the Soul, and well within the understanding of the average "Westerner", Muslim or Sufi Master. This Page Will Do Help For Ur Behaviour Or Attitude And As U Know Your Style. Positive Emotion. The approach enables new theoretical insights to be developed directly from a systematic interrogation of data and is particularly useful in areas where existing theory is incomplete, inappropriate or entirely absent (Charmaz 2014; Payne 2016). The participants were quite diverse in terms of age. To do so requires that we understand how human beings are conceptualized within the cosmology that characterizes the Islamic tradition. The constructivist approach to grounded theory methodology takes a relativist position, acknowledging the constructed nature of human experience and the multiplicity of possible standpoints of both participants and researchers. Tarkki argued that, “Al-Ghazali is far more focused than any other author I know up to that point…in trying to figure out what the systematic bases for our various shortcomings, psychological shortcomings, would be… so the moral psychology aspect.” Many of the participants recognized the significant contribution that Islamic scholars like al-Ghazali offered to the field of moral psychology, particularly those who had an academic orientation to the study of Islamic philosophy and spirituality and the history of such thought. John said, “It’s understanding these as not just fissures of the psyche, but inclinations of the nafs and treating them on that level as inclinations of the nafs.” Similarly, Yaqoub pointed out that this view does not cause the person to identify with a diagnosis and perceive it to be static but instead to view it as a passing state that has a known treatment. Positive Thinking Of Islam And Psychology Of Human, Lahore, Pakistan. Abu-Raiya (2012) presented a “systematic Qur’anic theory of personality” which also outlines a framework of the psychological nature of the human being around these four aspects but adds the three developmental stages as found in the Qur’an: nafs al ammarah bil su (soul that inclines to evil), nafs al lawwama (self-reproaching soul), and nafs al mutmainah (soul at rest). Participants explained that every human being has forces of good and evil fighting in the battleground of his or her soul and, although one integrated whole, the distinction between these aspects helps us understand different functions that play a part in this struggle. This paper presents a study that aimed to develop a data-grounded, consensual model of the soul from within an Islamic paradigm. Nafs al ammarah was explained as a state in which a person is not exerting concerted effort in controlling the nafs, and essentially allowing the lower self to run wild. Drawing on scholarly writings as well as popular literature on self-healing, El Shakry provides the first in-depth examination of psychoanalysis in Egypt and reveals how a new science of psychology—or “science of the soul,” as it came to be called—was inextricably linked to Islam and mysticism. All 18 participants identified the concept of fitrah, defined as human nature or natural disposition, as being central to the conceptualization of an Islamic psychology. Charmaz, K. (2014). Take, for example, the morning and evening athkar. Niebuhr, R. (2004). Islamic Psychology also addresses topics within psychology with Islamic teachings, history, values and ideas … 65% were male (n=221) and 35% were female (n=119). ), Doing qualitative research: Research methods for primary care (pp. Today, Islam is the second largest religion in the world, second only to Christianity by numbers, and comprises about one fifth of the world’s population. So, in other words, you know, the whole idea of purification takes one to the highest level – the nafs al mutmainah or the tranquil, serene soul. Wenn der Leidensdruck hoch ist, und Wahrnehmung und Handeln beeinflusst werden, spricht man von einer psychischen Störung. The article discusses the connection of human psychology with Islam. But all that is a question of proportion. In the conception of the structure of the soul and understanding the makeup of the human being and human nature from a psychological point of view, it was almost impossible for most of the participants not to equate this knowledge directly with the process of purification of the soul. Gareth pointed out that while these scholars may have been influenced by Greek philosophy, they had a different orientation to the application and purpose of such knowledge. I Will Help You In Every Decision. Toward the top half of the model in Fig heal, rather than merely theorize most of the model Fig... C. ( 2005 ) were the first treatises to deal with social psychology problems a! Will do Help for Ur behaviour or Attitude and as U Know your Style view a ) not thoughts! Also given a great deal of focus is the general tendency for human beings based the... Relig Health 57, pages1731–1744 ( 2018 ) Cite this article discussion and cooperation articles to... 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